PARASITES and FLY STRIKE
When you raise birds it is just a matter of time before you will have a sick bird. You may even lose a bird for an unknown reason.  I believe in prevention whenever
possible - but I dislike giving medication unless it is absolutely necessary. This is what works for me, your situation may be different.
I am not a vet and do not mean to prescribe or diagnose.


WORMING WITH IVERMECTIN
Here are basic directions per Iona McCormick to use Ivermectin for parasite control (see ** below for details):
"Ivomec is a brand name of ivermectin and yes, it is a cattle de-wormer in that form. You may be able to find generic Ivermectin (look
for Normectin) at your local feed store. I use 1% injectable cattle ivermectin mixed in water. You can purchases a syringe at the feed
store to measure with. Ivomec is thick, try to find a 8 or 10 gauge needle with syringe. SMALLER NUMBER IS LARGER GAUGE, 22
GAUGE IS TINY, TRY TO FIND 8 OR 10 GAUGE NEEDLE WITH SYRINGE, you will use this to get it out of the bottle and
measure dosage. Mix 4 cc of Ivermectin to 1 gallon of water (1cc per quart) .  
NOTE: If your syringe has measurements in ml instead of cc, they are the same thing.
"The mixture is the only water the birds get for 2 days. Mix small batches (a gallon) to retain freshness as more of the solution is
needed. I did give the meds for 3 days, but decided the birds were doing ok with only 2 days. I don't toss the eggs. Ivermectin is used
for a de-wormer for people and has not caused any problems as far as I know from my extensive reading.  For those that want to jump
on the previous statement -- Yes, once in a while there will be someone with a rare sensitivity to the drug."

**I believe worming does more to keep birds healthy than just about anything else you can do. It is safe and easy.
I got the *DIRECTIONS (see below) from a very experienced lady who has been worming with Ivomec for more
than 20 years (and has raised birds for 35+ years). Her name is Iona McCormick and I thank her for sharing her
knowledge. Here is what she wrote (in red italics):
"What I'm going to write is my opinion from results of lots of years of using ivermectin.  Some people will disagree with me, but I have live healthy birds from
using my method.  And this is not about dogs and the problems ivermectin causes some of them . This is about poultry so don't get your knickers in a knot. I live
in the South where parasites are prevalent even if cages and coops are kept clean. Parasite eggs are hard to kill.  They will remain viable in extreme heat or cold.  
I find the every 2 month schedule of de-worming works well.  I de-worm birds under a year old every month.  I lost lots of pea chicks and chicken chicks before
using these methods. I use ivermectin because it kills the larval stage of parasites as they migrate around the animal’s body where they do lots of damage.  The
only internal parasite ivermectin doesn't kill is tape worms.  That doesn't bother me for I have never had any poultry with tape worms.  I have my birds tested
for parasites a couple of  times a year.  Not all of them but a sampling of them. I use the eggs from treated birds with no problems.  Ivermectin is used on humans
for some parasites with great results.  If you want to find out more do a search on ivermectin and river blindness. I read about using natural things -- garlic,
pumpkin seeds, DE, hot pepper -- to prevent or control parasites. I personally don't think these things work.  If I used them alone I would take fecal samples
to the vet to have them tested.   Logic just doesn't allow these things to work as I can see.  Again this is my opinion.
De-worming Methods using 1% injectable cattle ivermectin:
Birds up to 6 months old get 1/4 cc of ivermectin in the mouth.  I want to be sure they get a good dose since they are the most susceptible to parasites and
internal parasite damage.  Grown birds are treated with 1cc of ivermectin per quart of water for 2 days.   Mix a fresh batch as needed each day. Birds drink
what water they need according to size so I don't worry about them over dosing.  Over dosing isn't really a problem though for it takes a lot of ivermectin to
cause a problem.   A friend did a test on a bantam rooster by giving the bird 5 cc of ivermectin straight from the bottle.  The bird was droopy a day or two, but
snapped right back and live another 6 or so years.  If you want to find out more about ivermectin you can find lots of information about it on the web.  I have
even called the Merial and talked to a vet or two there. -- Iona McCormick, Quiet Place Farm, Jacksonville, NC USA"

Ivomec has withdrawal for meat (if you were going to eat the bird) but none stated for eggs. My family and my dogs eat the eggs and if there were a problem with
it surely we'd know about it by now.  Ivomec (Merial) is the brand name, ivermectin is generic. I buy generic Ivomec from Jeffers Supply. Some feed stores carry
it. Jeffers has it on sale sometimes and it is cheaper than my feed store even with shipping. DO NOT GET POUR ON. Pour on is oil based and will not mix with
the water. GET INJECTABLE.

IMPORTANT NOTE - Ivomec's patent expired Jan 2008. There are now generic versions of Ivermectin that cost a fraction of the price as Ivomec
does. I used to pay $65.00 and $76.00 per bottle of Ivomec. Now I use a brand called NOROMECTIN (which is ivermectin) made by Novapharm Ltd.
It costs around $20.00 for the same size bottle. Ivomec has dropped it's price down to approx $40.00 to $45.00 per bottle but I've been using
the Noromectin and have had no side effects and it's cheaper.

Ivomec controls most intestinal parasites with the exception of tape worm (tape is rare in chickens).  It also controls lice and mites. Parasitic insects suck the
blood of the host (your bird) and are poisoned. Ivomec can also help prevent gapeworm (picked up from eating earthworms).  It will not treat gape worm if a
bird is already infected, that requires a different course of therapy.  

The reason ivermectin works so well is it kills the migrating larva inside the bird and the grown parasites within the gut. None of the other de-wormers do that.
Most of us that use ivermectin have researched it to death. Here is a good paper on the use of ivermectin in both humans and animals.

http://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/pharm/ivermect.htm#SectionTitle:1.5

At the very least, I worm in early spring and late fall, then re-treat 10-14 days after initial worming to break mite/lice life cycle.  Some people worm
more often (at the beginning of each season).

URL for Jeffer's:
http://www.jefferslivestock.com/ssc/

POUR ON IVOMEC
I have heard that you can also use pour on Ivomec.  If you don't have a lot of birds, this is practical. Each bird is given 2-3 drops (bantams) of the Ivermectin
Pour-On (for cattle, the blue stuff) on the back of the neck.  Standards get 4-5 drops.

If you are treating with Ivomec (either pour on or injectable) for lice/mites, you will need to re-treat in 10-14 days to break the mite/lice life cycle.

LICE and MITES
Lice and mites can be a serious problem. By the time you see them, you may have a massive infestation. If you see mites on your birds, you need to clean your
coops thoroughly. Lice live only on the birds, but mites live off the birds and climb back on at night. Scoop all shavings out of the coop, bag it and dispose of it in
the trash (not the compost pile). Spray the entire inside with the Adam's Flea and Tick Spray (active ingredient 0.15% Pyrethrins), or poultry spray from the
feed store, especially under and on top of the roosts. Then apply Poultry Dust all over the floor and in the nest boxes. Add clean shavings and some poultry dust to
the nest boxes. Follow directions above for Ivomec treatment for worms,
then re-treat 10-14 days after initial worming to break mite/lice life cycle.
FOR Heavily infested birds and birds with or near the remainder of the flock (even if you don't detect mites):             
A. Frontline (I buy generic Fipronil, Sentry Fiproguard 9.70%) drops for small dogs - placed at the base of the back of the neck                
a. 1-2 drops for small birds                 b. 3-4 drops for large birds
COCCIDIOSIS
Coccidiosis is a common disease that mostly affects younger birds. It can quickly be fatal or cause permanent damage if not treated quickly. The good news is it is
treatable and preventable. I keep Amprol on hand in case of an outbreak. Here is a link to an excellent article on Cocci:
http://www.shagbarkbantams.com/page7.htm
GAPE WORM
I have never had to deal with gape worm (knock on wood) but I read this is a way to check for it if you suspect you have an infected bird: Take a Q-tip and gently twirl
it as you push down his throat, and twirl it as you bring it back out as well. You only need to go just past the back of the bird's mouth at the very beginning of his
throat. Check the Q-tip for gape worms. Gape worms are red and appear to have two heads.’

First State Vet Supply carries meds to treat gape worm

'Levasole/Tramisol Wormer: Does not get the Tape Worms but does an excellent job removing most round worms and Gape Worms. Removes Capillary Worms as well.'

http://www.firststatevetsupply.com/store2/
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                                                                     SCALY LEG MITE TREATMENT
Scaly leg mites (Knemidocoptes mutans) are microscopic insects that live underneath the scales on a chicken’s lower legs and feet. They dig tiny tunnels underneath
the skin, eat the tissue and  deposit crud in their wake. The result is thick, scabby, crusty-looking feet and legs. The longer the mites reside under the chicken's leg
scales, the more discomfort and damage they inflict; an unchecked infestation can result in pain, deformities, lameness and loss of toes.

The safest and most commonly recommended method for mild to moderate cases of scaly leg mites is a simple, chemical-free process:

      1) soak the feet and legs in warm water
      2) dry with a towel, gently exfoliating any dead, loose scales.
      3) dip feet and legs in oil, (linseed, mineral, olive, vegetable) which suffocates the mites.
      4) wipe off linseed oil and slather affected area with petroleum jelly. The petroleum jelly should be reapplied several times each week until the affected areas
      return to normal. It may take several months for mild to moderate cases to resolve.

      An alternate treatment option for scaly leg mites (my favored method) is to mix 2 tablespoons of sulfur powder (brimstone) with ½ cup petroleum jelly- applied
      daily for a minimum of two weeks.
I buy sulfur powder from Amazon: Duda Energy's 99.8% Purity, 1 lb Ground Yellow Sulfur Powder Feed Grade Pure
    Elemental Commercial Flour No Additives Brimstone
In addition to the sulfur treatment, I treat with Ivermectin. I mix 4CC of Ivermectin in a gallon of
      water and give this as the only source of water for 3 days.  Repeat in 10 days (another 3 day treatment). In severe cases of scaly leg mite, Ivermectin may be
      administered orally. Per Dr. Julie Gauthier, DVM in Chicken Health for Dummies, at p. 310, the dosage is 0.2 mg/kg per bird, repeated in ten days.  Gail
      Damerow indicates an oral dosage of Ivermectin of 5-7 drops for bantam birds, 1/4 cc for larger birds in The Chicken Health Handbook. She also states that
      "since the withdrawal time is not known, ivermectin should not be used on birds kept for meat or eggs."
                                                                   FLY STRIKE
Fly strike occurs when a fly lays eggs in a wound. Maggots can hatch literally overnight. This is a very serious (and disgusting) condition and requires immediate action.

   Step One in Flystrike Treatment: Clean the Wound. Trim away the feathers and clean out the wound thoroughly with sterile saline solution, removing all maggots.
      (I have used medicated flea and tick shampoo for dogs in the worst cases.) Wash out the area with an antibacterial soap. The affected area may be tender, so
      handle the wound as gently as possible. Then flush with full strength hydrogen peroxide. Cleaning out the wound will result in a deep open hole that must be kept
      clean and treated daily. Gently dry the affected area Apply a triple antibiotic cream (one that does not contain a pain reliever) inside and outside of the wound.

   Step Two: Isolate the animal, confining them to an area where you can monitor the progress carefully and administer flystrike treatment on a daily basis.

   Step Three: Daily Wound Care. Keep the animal in a dry, well-ventilated area. If there are still loose bowel movements, treat this also. It is important to keep
      the feces from sticking to the animal's genital area to prevent attracting more flies. Using a fly repellent cream, such as Swat, around the affected area will
      also deter more flies from trying to attack the wound.

      In less extreme cases, where the larvae and maggots have not invaded the tissue yet, the treatment is similar, yet not as messy. Trim away the feathers.
      Clean the area and remove all maggots. Flush the area with a gentle soapy solution to cleanse the skin without causing further irritation. Pat the skin dry and
      allow it to air dry completely. Apply a fly repellent ointment, such as SWAT, to the irritated skin. This will help the skin heal and also make the area less
      inviting to the flies. FLYS OFF and SWAT are both wound care ointments that contain a pesticide to kill flies, maggots and eggs. They are actually the exact
      same ointment, and available at most pet stores or feed stores.